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  “操纵汇率”指责是泼脏水(钟声)

  ——美国一些人的不实之词荒谬在哪里⑧

  美方给中国扣上“汇率操纵国”帽子,遭到国际舆论一片谴责。国际货币基金组织近日发布权威报告,重申人民币汇率水平与经济基本面基本相符,直接打脸美方的荒谬言行。

  七国集团不表示支持美方对中国的“汇率操纵”指控,受到国际舆论关注。根据七国集团达成的协议,各成员国必须经互相协商才能采取重大的货币举措。可以说,美方这次贸然采取的单方面行动,得不到国际社会支持,连其盟友都不认可。美国前财长、哈佛大学教授萨默斯在《华盛顿邮报》发表署名文章称,中国并没有通过干预外汇市场压低人民币汇率扩大出口、抑制进口,指控中国“操纵汇率”没有可信依据。

  客观存在的大量可信依据支持了对美方的反驳。中国实施的是以市场供求为基础、参考一篮子货币进行调节、有管理的浮动汇率制度,在机制上人民币汇率由市场供求决定,不存在“汇率操纵”的问题。近年来,人民币汇率弹性增强,汇率在宏观经济稳定和国际收支平衡中凸显“稳定器”作用。国际清算银行公布的数据表明,2005年初至2019年6月,人民币名义有效汇率升值38%,实际有效汇率升值47%,是二十国集团经济体中最强势的货币,在全球范围内也是升值幅度最大的货币之一。作为一个负责任的大国,中国坚持市场决定的汇率制度,不搞竞争性贬值,不将汇率用于竞争性目的。即便是面对2008年国际金融危机的严峻挑战,中国也没有通过人民币贬值谋取额外贸易优势。人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定,为熨平市场波动,促进世界经济复苏,作出了举世公认的贡献。

  “经济政治化”“汇率武器化”,美国一些人的玩法,简直就是世界经济新的风险源。事实上,美国的“帽子工厂”也并非只为中国“定制”,除了中国,他们还加班加点想给多个国家和地区送上“汇率操纵国”的帽子,对此,国际社会早已见怪不怪。就连美国媒体也评论说:“对于汇率操纵国,美国财政部自己提出了3条标准,并规定须同时满足这3个条件才可认定;而公开的数据显示,中国有两项明显不符。”国际货币基金组织中国部前负责人普拉萨德坦言,美国政府正以“武断和明显报复性的方式”使用“汇率操纵国”这一名称。

  美国经济学家巴里·埃森格林在其著作《嚣张的特权》中以大量事实表明,美国在国际货币问题谈判中,考虑最多的并非全球经济利益的最大化,而是美国的政治利益。事实上,谁才是真正的操纵汇率者,世人早有公论。从“华盛顿协议”到“牙买加协议”,从“广场协议”到“卢浮宫协议”,究竟是谁在以美元霸权要挟干预其他国家汇率?究竟是谁在破坏金融市场规则攫取利益?究竟是谁在以霸权条约转嫁危机?结论不言自明。

  诺贝尔经济学奖获得者、“欧元之父”蒙代尔早前就反复告诫:“人民币升值并不是解决贸易顺差问题的灵丹妙药”“美国如果将中国列为所谓‘汇率操纵国’,可能招致很严重的后果”。

  中国经济有充足的韧性、潜力和回旋余地,中国也有信心、有能力应对各种可能的情况。中美经贸摩擦发生以来,中国一直坚持不将人民币汇率作为工具来应对贸易争端等外部扰动,为维护国际金融市场稳定作出了巨大贡献。即使在美国将中国列为所谓的“汇率操纵国”后,中国也反复对外宣告,不会改变外汇管理政策的连续性、稳定性,中国的金融改革仍将持续深化,金融开放仍将持续扩大。

  泼脏水,搞讹诈,既非正道,也难奏效。在国际交往和经贸合作中,指望靠霸凌手段和强权政治吃独食、捞油水,是一种可笑的误判。损人害己,结果必然是众叛亲离。


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